School uniform

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Young boys often dress more formally in their class pictures than they do other days of the school year. Handbuch der Geschichte des Bayerischen Bildungswesens. In Tonga all schools require a uniform.

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A school uniform is a uniform worn by students primarily for a school or otherwise educational institution. They are common in primary and secondary schools in various countries. Although often used interchangeably, there is an important distinction between dress codes and school uniforms.
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Skirts are generally blue or black but may be other colours as well, depending on the school. Some schools also have alternative uniforms which students of both genders wear every other day. These often consist of a coloured shirt and slacks. High school girls must wear black or blue long skirts.

High school boys wear long black or blue trousers. The white shirt can be short-sleeved or long-sleeved for both genders. High school students are also required to wear name tags on the left hand side of their shirts. In Canada, school uniforms are not required in most public schools or separate schools , except in exceptional circumstances such as school performances or international field trips. However, the majority of Catholic high schools in southern Ontario Grade do require uniforms.

Schools often allow girls the option of choosing to wear the skirt or trousers. Some schools also mandate dress shoes and a particular type and length of socks to go with the uniform.

A cardigan sweater, vest, or blazer may be part of the ensemble, particularly in winter. Additionally, as of , the Toronto Catholic District School Board has implemented an Appropriate Dress Code of navy blue and white in all elementary separate schools which do not already have their own uniforms.

Uniforms are used in most private schools, and also in special or alternative programs of public and Catholic schools, such as the Traditional Learning Centres, a program that takes a liberal arts approach, while focusing on high levels of academic excellence.

In Quebec , most metropolitan anglophone school boards require a uniform. Until , it was uncommon for students to wear a uniform. During the administration of Eduardo Frei Montalva , a unified uniform was introduced for all public and private schools and other education centers.

Today, these uniforms have disappeared in private schools, who prefer to use a customised one. Uniforms are a common part of the schools in China. Almost all secondary schools as well as some elementary schools require students to wear uniforms.

Uniforms in mainland China usually consist of five sets: A formal set is worn on Mondays or special occasions school anniversaries, school ceremonies, etc. They consist of a white collared shirt with a sweater on top and a skirt for girls or a suit for boys. There is one formal set for summer and one set for winter. Everyday uniforms for boys in the winter usually consist of a zippered sweater and trousers and a collared shirt usually white.

Thinner materials are worn in the spring and fall and short or long trousers may be worn in the summer. The everyday uniforms for girls are very similar to the boys' uniform. It is relatively common for there to be some kind of sponsored advertisement on some non-formal school uniform shirts, though this trend has fluctuated in recent years. In Colombia, all students are required to wear uniforms in public and private schools. Uniforms in Colombia consist of two sets, one for everyday use and a sports one for physical education.

Everyday uniforms for girls generally include a knee-length skirt, a white T-shirt with a vest, and white calf-length socks. For boys, the uniform generally includes dark-coloured long trousers and a short- or long-sleeved shirt.

The shoes for both girls and boys are black lace-up shoes sometimes the shoes may be dark blue or wine-coloured, depending on the uniform colours and the shirts usually have the school's symbol at the left side.

The sports uniform includes sweat pants, a collared T-shirt, and white sports shoes. The designs and the colours of the uniforms depend on the school's colours and the principal's preference. In El Salvador, all students from public schools and private schools are required to wear uniforms.

Uniforms vary depending on the school. Xavier Darcos , a former teacher and Minister of Education from to , is an advocate of the reintroduction of uniforms: This removes the visible differences in social status or wealth. This is an additional factor of integration". Since March , the students of the Boarding School of Excellence Sourdun wear a uniform with the insignia of their establishment. Les lycées de la défense, formerly known as military schools , require their students to wear uniforms.

At some universities, the academic dress is becoming popular. There is no tradition of wearing school uniforms in Germany, and today, almost all students of state schools, private schools or universities do not wear school uniforms. However, certain garments have been common to students in former times:.

From the 16th century, students especially of secondary or grammar schools and similar institutions were often subject to regulations that prescribed, for example, modest and not too stylish attire.

In many cases these regulations were part of wider laws concerning the clothing of all citizens of certain social classes. A blue coat became a widespread obligatory status symbol of students of secondary schools; it fell out of use during the latter half of the 18th century. In more recent times, school uniforms in any real sense did not exist outside of convent schools and private boarding schools.

At times, certain fashions became so widespread that they approached uniform status; this is true in particular for so-called student hats Schülermützen that became widespread from the s on and remained somewhat popular until they were banned by the Nazis. Their wearing was advocated by teachers and the students themselves and occasionally made mandatory, but never on a national or statewide level.

Another instance are the sailor suits that became fashionable around the turn of the 19th century. These, too, were not usually a prescribed uniform. The Nazis banned student hats — the last remaining, if voluntary, form of unified student clothing — because they considered them an attribute of class society. They did, however, institute mandatory membership in the uniformed Hitler Youth HJ from until their fall.

HJ uniforms were worn in the HJ training academies and in the Napolas ; students of other schools sometimes wore them to school at their own discretion. In recent times, the introduction of school uniforms has been discussed, but usually the expression "uniform" the word is the same in German is avoided in favour of terms like "school clothing" "Schulkleidung". School clothing has been introduced in a small number of schools, for example in Hamburg -Sinstorf in , and in Friesenheim and Haag Oberbayern in In these cases the clothes are collections of shirts, sweaters, and the like, catering to contemporary fashion senses.

Uniforms in a more traditional sense are almost never proposed in earnest. The debate on mandatory school uniforms intensified in Germany when two Muslim girls dressed in burkas arrived at a school in Bonn in The girls' actions were interpreted as political action and were subsequently suspended from school. Then-Justice Minister Brigitte Zypries in an interview with the Welt am Sonntag stated that the simple solution to the issue under consideration is mandatory introduction of school uniforms for boys and girls across Germany.

She further argued that school uniforms would help to prevent conflicts arising from religious or political differences. The proposal was met with opposition from the teacher union and opposition political parties. The teacher union argued that school uniforms are not the solution for integration problems nor the issue of fashion obsession. The leader of the teacher union Heinz-Peter Meidinger also added that the school uniforms have been a controversial issue in Germany over the years.

A senior member of the Green Party, Krista Sager, also said that the introduction of school uniforms would be unacceptable state interference in religious matters. She then proposed that individual schools have to find their own solutions and rejected solutions imposed by government. She further noted that school uniforms are no longer up to date and their imposition would be rejected by the current generation of students. The Conference of Education Ministers, a body which decides on school policies, also kicked back against school uniforms.

They cited historical reasons dating back to WWII with memories of Hitler Youth's uniform still fresh in people's minds. They also concluded that the imposition of school uniforms would be excessive government encroachment on personal liberty of pupils and parents. The Bildungsstreik movement fights against school uniforms due to their belief that it represents some kind of militarism.

All children have to wear school uniforms in Ghana. Pupils in public schools have the same type of school uniform with the school's emblem is imprinted on the left chest. This helps to distinguish pupils of one school from the other. Private schools determine which uniforms their pupils wear. Ghana like most African countries is characterised by low incomes and high levels of poverty. Hence the cost of school uniforms acts as one of the barriers to educational access. In an effort to achieve universal primary education the government, as part of its educational policy, initiated free school uniform distribution throughout the country in Over 8, school uniforms have been distributed by the government to needy students in the communities from the Tarkwa Nsuaem municipality, one of the mining districts in Ghana, which is severely affected by poverty.

This is part of a program instituted in to supply disadvantaged children with school uniforms. The vast majority of schools in the former British colony adopted uniforms similar to that of British schools, while Catholic schools in Hong Kong usually follow the tradition of Catholic school uniforms. A number of older Christian girls' schools established before WWII, however, retain the heritage of using the Chinese cheongsam as their uniform, [23] such as St.

Sailor suits are also used as uniforms in some kindergartens for boys and girls, and secondary schools but for girls only, for example the Bishop Hall Jubilee School and New Method College. Uniforms are compulsory in India in both public and private schools. The boys' uniforms are often made of a light-coloured shirt, long trousers usually blue, white or black, and those of the girls are often a shirt and a skirt.

At the state level, the secondary schools are required to use a Shalwar Kameez. This is not compulsory but they do have certain specific dress code. Many schools require students to wear shoes, ties and ID cards, and comb their hair down and keep it clean and short.

Long hair is tied in braids. Uniform is one of the most important components of school life and is taken very seriously in India. Some institutions also require the use of a tie, especially the schools run by Christian missionaries, and the Indian government does not prohibit the children to have religious symbols, so the Muslim girls can wear the veil hijab burka and Sikh boys a turban in addition to the uniform. However, most of the schools, whether public or private, prohibit students to have a ponytail or dyed hair.

In Indonesia , school uniforms are mandatory for every student. They can be simply described as below for each stage of education:. Public schools in Indonesia tolerate religious freedoms. For example, Muslim girls may opt to wear long-sleeve shirts, longer skirts, and jilbab to cover their heads. Most schools in Indonesia also have a batik uniform, usually worn on Thursday or Friday. This kind of uniform consists of a batik short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirt, with long or short trousers for SMA and below-knee or long skirts for females.

The motifs and colours of batik depend on the school. These neckties and vests may vary from school to school in colour and sewing pattern, even among public schools.

Nowadays, with the increase of private schools in Indonesia, most private schools have their own signature school uniform. Most consist of shirts with shorts or trousers for males, and skirts for females, only with differences on the colour. Every school has its own standard grooming. Males are not allowed to have long hair.

Accessories are also normally prohibited for males, except for watches. Females are usually allowed to use simple accessories such as watches, earrings, and sometimes bracelets. All students are prohibited from colouring their hair or having tattoos. Most schools pay attention to the shoes that can be worn.

Black or white sneakers with white laces are the most common shoes. The school badge is usually put on the right sleeve of a shirt, consist of school's name and location, and some have their own school's logo. Others prefer to wear the school's logo as a lapel or breast plastic or metal pin.

Students' names are usually on the right side of the shirt and embedded by sewing, ironing or as a detachable badge. Some schools usually "SMP" and "SMA" distinguish the grade of their students by stripes on the official neckties issued or an emblem below the school emblem it can be stripes, chevrons or numbers. Nowadays some schools require the students to wear an Indonesian flag school badge sewn on top of their left pocket.

The scouts pramuka uniform is used in many schools in Indonesia at least once a week. It consists of light-brown short-sleeve or long-sleeve shirts, with dark-brown shorts or trousers, and below-knee skirts or longer for females.

The common day to wear the scout uniform usually falls on Wednesday, Friday, or Saturday. The scout uniform has two breast pockets. Above right pocket is the student's name. Male students wear International Scout Organization logo above their name and female students on their lapel. According to former Education Minister Limor Livnat , about 1, Israeli public schools require pupils to wear uniforms.

School uniforms used to be the norm in the state's early days, but have since fallen out of favour. However, in recent years, the number of schools using school uniforms has been increasing once more. Many teachers, parents and students are in favour of returning the school uniform to common use to prevent the deepening of the gap between affluent children and those less well-off.

Nowadays school uniforms are mainly associated with "national religious" schools within the Israeli system of education. In the Haredi or ultra-Orthodox school system, uniforms are compulsory in essentially all girls' schools. In the vast majority of these, the style adopted by the Beit Ya'akov network is used: In cold weather, a Yale-blue sweater may be added.

A small fraction of schools alter the color scheme to pink and burgundy, while otherwise retaining the same overall appearance. In boys' schools there is usually not an identifiable school uniform, distinct from what is considered acceptable for ordinary street wear. However, the standards of acceptable street wear for boys and men in Haredi communities are so precise and exacting that in almost all cases all of the boys in a particular school will be dressed identically.

In non-Haredi schools today, school uniforms in Israel consist only of a shirt with the school logo. In the summer, the uniform shirt is a simple T-shirt, while in the winter, the shirts worn are warm or hooded sweaters.

Although the shirts are uniform, they usually come in various colours, and allow students to customise and express themselves even while wearing a uniform. The shirts sell for a very small amount of money, so that even the less well-off can acquire them. In Italy, school uniforms are uncommon, partially because child uniforms are associated with the era of Benito Mussolini before World War II when children were placed according to their age into Italian Fascist youth movements and had to wear uniforms inside and outside school.

However, until the early s many high schools required girls to wear black grembiule resembling a doctor smock on top of their clothes: Perhaps this was because at one time high schools were the only public schools to admit both sexes as opposed to junior schools and elementary , and girls may be required to "cover up" not to distract their male counterparts. Indeed, this policy was highly disputed during the sexual revolution of the s and later abolished.

Nowadays, many pre-schools advise parents to dress their children with a grembiulino , i. Some elementary schools advise some kind of grembiule for the younger pupils. Sometimes girls are required to wear a pink or white grembiulino , while boys may be required to wear a short cotton jacket, usually blue or black. In other cases both boys and girls may be required to wear a more neutral blue grembiule. Some parents send their children to school in a grembiule even if the school does not require it.

Poet and children's writer Gianni Rodari has described adult life as "a school without grembiule and school desk". In the Italian chapter of WWF warned that synthetic grembiuli were harmful to pupils. In July Education Minister Mariastella Gelmini proposed the re-introduction of the compulsory smock in public schools, provoking a debate in the Italian press.

Japan introduced school uniforms in the late 19th century. Today, school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school systems. They are also used in some women's colleges. In the majority of elementary schools, students are not required to wear a uniform to school. Where they are required, many boys wear white shirts, short trousers, and caps. Young boys often dress more formally in their class pictures than they do other days of the school year.

Girls' uniforms might include a grey pleated skirt and white blouse. Occasionally the sailor outfit is used for girls.

The uniform codes may vary by season to work with the environment and occasion. It is common for boys and girls to wear brightly coloured caps to prevent traffic accidents.

It is normal for uniforms to be worn outside of school areas. However, this is going out of fashion and many students are wearing casual dress.

The Japanese junior- and senior-high-school uniform traditionally consists of a military style for boys and a sailor outfit for girls. These uniforms are based on Meiji era formal military dress, themselves modeled on European-style naval uniforms.

They consist of a white shirt, tie, blazer or sweater vest with school crest, and tailored trousers often not of the same colour as the blazer or sweater vest for boys and a white blouse, tie, blazer with school crest, and tartan skirt for girls. Much like the male uniform, the gakuran , the sailor outfit bears a similarity to military-styled naval uniforms.

The uniform generally consists of a blouse attached with a sailor-style collar and a pleated skirt. There are seasonal variations for summer and winter: A ribbon is tied in the front and laced through a loop attached to the blouse. Several variations on the ribbon include neckties , bolo ties , neckerchiefs , and bows. Common colours are navy blue, white, grey, light green and black. Shoes, socks, and other accessories are sometimes included as part of the uniform.

The socks are typically navy or white. The shoes are typically brown or black penny loafers. Although not part of the prescribed uniform, alternate forms of legwear such as loose socks , knee-length stockings, or similar are commonly matched by more fashionable girls with their sailor outfits.

Regardless of what type of uniform any particular school assigns its students, all schools have a summer version usually consisting of a white dress shirt and dark slacks for boys and a reduced-weight traditional uniform or blouse and tartan skirt with tie for girls and a sports-activity uniform a polyester track suit for year-round use and a T-shirt and shorts for summer activities. Depending on the discipline level of their school, students may wear seasonal and activity uniforms in the same classroom during the day.

Students may attempt to subvert the system of uniforms by wearing them incorrectly or by adding prohibited elements such as large loose socks or badges. Miniskirts have been very popular in Japan, where they became part of school uniforms, and they came to be worn within the Kogal culture. In Lebanon, all private schools require uniforms. Most of the uniforms are made of a skirt, a shirt, and a pull-over for girls, and for boys it's made of trousers, a shirt, and a pull-over. Some public schools there do not require school uniforms.

In Lesotho school uniforms are still compulsory. In Malaysia , school uniforms Malay: Pakaian Seragam Sekolah are compulsory for all students who attend public schools. Western-style school uniforms were introduced to present-day Malaysia in the late 19th century during the British colonial era. The present design was standardised beginning in January The uniforms at Malaysian public schools are as follows: Students are required to wear white socks and white shoes with the above uniform.

For modesty reasons, most schools require female students who wear the baju kurung to wear a plain-coloured camisole underneath. In addition to these, schools usually have badges which must be sewn or ironed on to the uniform — generally at the left chest. Some schools require students to sew their name tags in addition to the badge.

For upper forms, students generally have to wear a school-specific tie, except those who are wearing the baju kurung. In Malaysia, Muslim girls tend to wear the baju kurung. Most of them start wearing a white tudung Malaysian version of the Muslim headscarf or hijab upon entering secondary school, for religious reasons.

Non-Muslim girls tend to wear the pinafore. Some non-Muslim girls wear the baju kurung. Muslim boys may wear baju melayu at school on Fridays, often with a songkok hat, to be dressed for going to the mosque for prayers at lunchtime.

Girls who choose to wear the pinafore, especially those attending co-ed schools, usually wear shorts under their pinafore to allow for carefree movement as the skirt only covers up to the knee. Those who wear the baju kurung tend not to wear shorts under their long skirt as their skirt covers their legs. Neckties are often worn by prefects, class monitors, librarians, and other students of rank.

Some schools have neckties as standard issue; even then, the neckties are generally reserved for school events and public appearances, and are not part of the everyday school uniform. The tropical climate makes them uncomfortable. The hairstyle of students is given attention by schools and the Ministry of Education.

For boys, there is usually a maximum length allowed, for example, the hair must be a few centimetres above the collar, and no sideburns are allowed.

Violation of boys' hair regulations is often punished with a caning ; some offer the alternative of an enforced haircut at the school. Girls' long hair must be properly tied up, often into a ponytail. Some schools dictate the colour and type of hair accessories that can be used.

Some prohibit even girls from having long hair. Wearing make up in school is prohibited. Schools usually enforce their uniform code thoroughly, with regular checks by teachers and prefects. Students who fail to comply may be warned, given demerit points, publicly punished, sent home from school, or caned. School uniforms in Mauritius are generally compulsory. Mauritius being a former British colony, has been using the system from back then.

The students have to wear uniforms from primary school until higher secondary level. However, there are a few private schools that are based on the French system and do not require the student to wear school uniform. The uniforms have the school's logo and colors. Most Mexican schools have 2 types of uniforms; one for P. Uniforms usually consist of the following but may vary by school:. Traditionally, many New Zealand intermediate and high schools , and state-integrated and private primary schools , have followed the British system of school uniforms, [43] although it is common in state schools for the boy's uniform to have a jersey and grey short trousers rather than a blazer with tie and long trousers.

This usually consists of a variety of the following apparel: Both sexes wear an 'official' school jersey. Blazers and jackets are of varied colours according to the school - dark or light blue, grey, crimson, scarlet, green or black. Some follow the British practice of having contrasting colours edging the lapels and jacket fronts. Caps have generally been discarded since the s but in many primary schools there is a compulsory broad-brimmed floppy hat, in the school colours, to help prevent sunburn.

Where short trousers are worn, boys are usually required to wear long dark socks, which may require garters to hold them up. During the s and s there was a tendency for the traditional uniform to be replaced by cheaper and more 'modern' options: Intermediate schools usually provide the option of skirts or culottes for girls and sometimes shorts while boys will wear shorts.

Bike shorts or tights are sometimes worn under girls' skirts and dresses. School uniforms are used in Nigeria. The school uniforms are compulsory in most schools in Pakistan. Both the public and the private schools have mandated uniforms. Boys uniforms are often made of a light-coloured shirt, long trousers usually brown or blue. The girls often wear Shalwar Qameez suit or in some schools shirt and skirt. In some private schools, there are specified days when students can wear civilian clothing, typically in special occasions like a holiday or last day of school.

There is usually no uniform in universities and progressive schools except for uniforms used in P. E classes, and in specific schools such as the University of Santo Tomas. Public school uniforms for primary levels are typically white, short-sleeved, buttoned-up shirts, with long skirts for girls and light brown knee-length trousers for boys.

Uniforms for public high schools and private schools vary widely in pattern and colour, but most often are in the official school colours. Muslim girls in some higher institutions are often required to wear a white hijab versus other colours.

Some school uniforms in the Philippines can bare resemblance to Japanese school uniforms. The material for these usually loose uniforms is often light and suited to the country's tropical climate e. In , the Department of Education ordered that students are no longer required to wear uniforms. This was to allow poorer families to save money for basic needs.

School uniforms are not compulsory in Poland and absent from the vast majority of Polish schools. The idea of school uniforms in Poland did not exist before the early 20th century. In the People's Republic of Poland , uniform ceased to be compulsory in most schools during the s due to economic issues.

Since then, there has been made only one effort to reintroduce uniform into Polish schools - by the former minister of education Roman Giertych , in It was then decided that school uniform would not be enforced by the state onto the whole country, but would be a matter decided upon by the principal of each school respectively.

Initially this was meant to permit only a dress code , but this was later modified in to address school uniform. From , all primary schools and middle schools were to enforce compulsory uniform, whilst high schools and other forms of further education were given the choice to decide on their own. The appearance of school uniform was decided upon locally, which meant that "uniform" in most schools consisted of a jacket or shirt only - selected by the school management purely to avoid breaking regulations the rest of clothing was still up to the students to decide.

By mid, compulsory school uniforms were repealed and it remains so to this day. In the Republic of Ireland , almost all primary and secondary schools require the wearing of a compulsory uniform. These can vary from school to school but for the most part include a trousers for males and a skirt or pinafore for female students a shirt a jumper and a necktie. In recent years many schools offer the option of trousers also for female students.

Some schools require blazers rather than jumpers. Some primary schools now let their pupils wear a school tracksuit rather than a formal uniform. In recent years there has been criticism, including by the Department of Education of the requirement a school uniform jumper must have the school crest or name imprinted onto it and of the practice, where a schools uniform can only be bought from a certain supplier, which can markedly increase the price of a uniform.

As far as the religious freedom violation accusations, the court ruled that the policy did not have a religious goal, and thus did not infringe on religious freedom rights. In , Liberty High School, a school of the Clark County School District in Henderson, Nevada , implemented a uniform policy of khakis and red, white or blue polo shirts.

A junior by the name of Kimberly Jacobs was suspended a total of five times because she wore a religious shirt to school and got cited for uniform violations. Her family sued the Clark County School District under the claims that her First Amendment rights were being infringed upon and that the uniform policy was causing students to be deprived of due process. The plaintiff's requests were for injunctive relief, the expunging of suspensions from Jacob's school record and awarding of damages. The injunction was granted to the family meaning that the school could no longer discipline her for breaking the uniform policy.

At this ruling, the school district appealed. The next court ruled on the side of the school district as it determined that the uniform policy was in fact neutral and constitutional, and it dismissed the claims of the plaintiff.

In , a Nevada public elementary school of the Washoe County School District decided to add the school's motto, Tomorrow's Leaders embroidered in small letters on the shirt.

In response, Mary and John Frudden, parents of a student sued the school district on the basis of it violating the 1st Amendment. The court ultimately dismissed the case filed by the Fruddens over the uniforms. However, the family appealed, and two years later, a three-judge panel of the 9th U. Circuit Court of Appeals heard the case. The court ruled to reverse the previous decision of dismissing the case, and also questioned the apparent policy for students that were part of a nationally recognised group such as Boy Scouts and Girl Scouts who were able to wear the uniforms in place of the school ones on regular meeting days.

The 9th circuit panel ruled that the school had not provided enough evidence for why it instituted this policy, and that the family was never given a chance to argue. There are several positive and negative social implications of uniforms on both the students wearing them and society as a whole. One of the criticisms of uniforms is that it imposes standards of masculinity and femininity from a young age.

Uniforms are considered a form of discipline that schools use to control student behavior and often promote conventional gendered dress. They are also often required to have their hair cut short.

Some critics allege that this uniform is associated with the dress of a professional business man, which, they claim, gives boys at a young age the impression that masculinity is gained through business success. Skirts are seen by some critics as a symbol of femininity because they restrict movement and force certain ways of sitting and playing.

Uniforms often start to increase in popularity around middle school in the United States , when students begin going through puberty. Uniforms can be seen as a way to restrict the sexualization of girls rules on hems of skirts, no shoulders.

Uniforms take the focus away from sexuality and focus it on academics in a school setting for girls. Miniskirts have been very popular in Japan, where they became part of school uniforms, and they came to be worn within the Kogal culture.

In some cultures, the topic of school uniforms has sparked a multitude of controversies and debates over the years. In the United States, the implementation of school uniforms began following ten years of research indicating the effectiveness of private schools.

Some state-school reformers cited this research to support policies linked to private and Catholic school success. However, within the Catholic school literature, school uniforms have never been acknowledged as a primary factor in producing a Catholic school effect. This is based on the assumption that uniforms are the direct cause of behavioral and academic outcome changes.

Another area of controversy regarding school uniform and dress code policies revolve around the issue of gender. Nowadays, more teenagers are more frequently "dressing to articulate, or confound gender identity and sexual orientation ", which brings about "responses from school officials that ranged from indifferences to applause to bans".

Instances include the following: Although not all schools in the United States are required to wear school uniforms, the United States is slowly adapting the use of school uniforms. In some areas uniforms have become essential due to the poverty level that the schools reside in. Stephanie Northen of The Guardian wrote that school uniforms are less controversial in the United Kingdom compared to the United States and are usually not opposed on free speech grounds. Advocates of uniforms have proposed multiple reasons supporting their implementation and claiming their success in schools.

A variety of these claims have no research supporting them. Some of these pros include the following: Advocates believe that uniforms affect student safety by: Kathleen Wade conducted an experiment to see if bullying and gang presence was higher in uniform or non-uniform schools. The research was done with multiple schools where she gave a questionnaire to both students, and faculty to see if there was a significant difference.

Her results showed that bullying and gang presence significantly decreases with students wearing school uniforms. Wearing uniforms leads to decreased behavior problems by increasing attendance rates, lowering suspension rates, and decreasing substance use among the student body.

Proponents also attribute positive psychological outcomes like increased self-esteem, increased spirit, and reinforced feelings of oneness among students to wearing uniforms. Additional proponent arguments include that school uniforms: Currently pros of school uniforms center around how uniforms impact schools' environments.

The opposing side of uniforms have claimed their ineffectiveness using a variety of justifications, a variety of which have research supporting them. Some of the cons to school uniforms include the following legal, financial, and questionable effectiveness concerns: Clothing is viewed as a mean of expression — making all students wear the same clothes or limit them to what they can wear can disrupt their sense of identity. One of the main controversies can lie within Dress Code Policies vs.

However, students can wear clothing artifacts that express their religion. Another negative aspect of school uniforms is that it can be sexist. Boys and girls are not disciplined the same when it comes to dress codes. Research on how school uniforms and school dress codes influence the student can be inconclusive, but many people oppose to school uniforms and strict dress code policies.

According to Marian Wilde, [45] additional opponent arguments include that school uniforms:. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

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